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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals and other materials. Materials recovered by the miner include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, carbon, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Any material that can not be cultivated through artificial processes in the laboratory or factory, is usually mined. Mining comprises the extraction of any non-renewable resource (eg, petroleum, natural gas, or water).


Extraction of stone and metal that has been done since pre-historic times. Modern processes of mining involve the prospecting of the deposits, the analysis of the potential benefit of a mining project, the extraction of the materials you want, and finally the recovery of the land for other uses once the mines are closed.


The nature of the processes of mining generate potential negative impacts on the environment, both during mining and for years after the mine has been closed. This impact has caused most nations to adopt ecological rules to moderate the negative effects of mining operations. Security has long been a growing concern for environmentalists despite the fact that Modern Internships have significantly improved safety in mines.


Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone, Bone Ceramics and later, the metals that were near the surface of the Earth. These were used to make the first tools and weapons, for example, high quality stone found in northern France and southern England were used to create tools. Flint mines have been found in areas of chalk in the seams of the stone were followed by underground wells. The mines at Grimes Graves are especially famous, and like most stone mines, were originally neolithic (4000 BC-3000 BC approximately). Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included green industry based Langdale Axe Lake District England.


The oldest mine known in the archeological record is located in Swaziland and it is called Lion Cave, which was dated with radiocarbon to about 43,000 years or so. This site had a called mineral hematite, which is the "iron oxide (similar to rust), that produced the red pigment ocher. The Mines of the same age in Hungary are thought to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined minerals for weapons and tools.

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